Robbins RA, Millatmal T, Lassi K, Rennard S, Daughton D





Địa chỉ:Số 100 Nguyễn Thái Học, Ba Đình, Hà Nội

Robbins RA, Millatmal T, Lassi K, Rennard S, Daughton D

Robbins RA, Millatmal T, Lassi K, Rennard S, Daughton D

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Citation: Palazzolo DL (2013) Electronic cigarettes and you will vaping: a separate complications during the logical treatments and you may social fitness. A literature feedback. Front side. Personal Health step one:56. doi: /fpubh.6

Copyright: © 2013 Palazzolo. This is an open-accessibility post marketed within the terms of new Innovative Commons Attribution License (CC By). Use, shipment or reproduction various other forums try let, given the original blogger(s) otherwise licensor is actually credited and therefore the first publication in this diary is actually cited, relative to acknowledged educational routine. No explore, shipping otherwise breeding is permitted which does not conform to these conditions.

Foulds mais aussi al. (a dozen, 13) believe that even more lookup has to be held to search for the safety and you can effectiveness out of age-smoking cigarettes due to the fact a cigarette smoking cessation product. not, however they declare that those who have effortlessly give up smoking cigarettes during the like out-of vaping should continue to use age-cigarettes once the a more powerful replacement for antique smoking cigarettes. However, there are obvious thinking among e-tobacco users you to e-smoking cigarettes can be used just like the one another a cigarette smoking cessation product, and you may a less dangerous alternative to puffing, they may be marketed due to the fact none. The new FDCA (5) precludes their fool around with because the a smoking cessation tool, as well as the Loved ones Puffing Reduction and Tobacco Handle Operate (14) precludes its use as the a diminished-exposure choice; thus, e-cigarettes need to be sold since a tobacco cigarette unit. E-smokes can take advantage of an important role afterwards away from smoking cessation, but their use is currently clouded by good tangle off judge and political points. It’s evident more search with the protection and effectiveness out-of elizabeth-cigarettes must be conducted, and that a lot more strict quality-control methods can be observed during the order towards court and governmental implications encompassing these products normally end up being untangled.

Consumer-Situated Surveys

A concern of the FDA (8) and the medical community (15) is that availability of e-cigarettes will entice teens and young adults toward vaping, which could ultimately lead recon prijs to smoking conventional cigarettes. Currently, there is little or no concrete evidence confirming the validity of this concern. Cho et al. (36) used data collected from a Korean Health Project to determine awareness and use of e-cigarettes. They found that 10.2% of 4353 students were aware of e-cigarettes, but only 0.5% of those students had actually tried e-cigarettes. Pepper et al. (37) conducted a national online survey of 228 male adolescents (ages 11–19) and determined that <1% of these individuals actually tried e-cigarettes. On the other hand, 67% of the respondents were aware of e-cigarettes with awareness being higher among the older boys. Of those individuals who never tried e-cigarettes, 18% were willing to experiment with no preference toward flavored versus unflavored e-cigarettes. In contrast, discussions with 11 focus groups involving 66 young adults (ages 18–26) revealed that young adults favorably perceive e-cigarettes and other new tobacco products specifically because they come in different flavors and that eliminating these flavors may reduce intentions to try these products (38). Another study surveyed 2624 US Midwestern young adults (ages 20–28) and indicated that 69.9% of the respondents were aware of e-cigarettes, but that only 7% actually tried vaping (39). Goniewicz et al. (40) conducted a survey of students enrolled at 176 nationally representative Polish high schools (ages 15–19) and universities (ages 20–24) and reported that 23.5% of high school students and 19% of university students had ever tried e-cigarettes. Of all the students who tried e-cigarettes, only 3.2% were non-smokers, which compares closely to the 4.9% reported by Sutfin et al. (35). Other strong correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents include male gender, and having parents who smoke (36, 40). While a small percentage of young non-smokers experiment with e-cigarettes, it is more likely that young smokers will experiment with e-cigarettes. One fact emerges from these studies; as e-cigarette popularity increases, so does awareness of them among young individuals. How increasing awareness will ultimately affect e-cigarette usage by adolescent and young adults remains to be seen.

Likewise, cigarette smokers was a whole lot more amiable so you’re able to experiment with elizabeth-smoking cigarettes than low-cigarette smokers

As mentioned (2), the brand new Fda granted warnings to several age-tobacco cigarette companies getting attempting to sell elizabeth-cartridges and you will refill choices with which has active pharmaceutical meals eg rimonabant (Zimulti ® ) with regards to dieting and reducing smoking habits, and tadalafil (the new ingredient in the Cialis ® ) for the intended purpose of growing intimate capabilities. Food and drug administration analyses ones age-cartridges and you can selection revealed the presence of amino-tadalafil and never tadalafil, and visibility out-of an enthusiastic oxidative device out of rimonabant, plus rimonabant (57), whilst number of both ones compounds that is able to import regarding h2o so you can vapor phase is actually low (58). Table 2 summarizes the research connected with toxins analyses out-of e-cigarette smoking cartridges, solutions, and mist.